【Key words】pragmatic distance physical distance psychological distance cognitive distance social distance
【中图分类号】G623.31 【文献标识码】A 【文章编号】1001-4128(2010)03-0211-03
Till now different opinions about a definite comprehensive definition for pragmatics have not reached agreement. However, still there is something unanimous in lots of definitions for pragmatics, that is, pragmatics is the study of language in communication. Examples are as follows. “Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others.”(Crystal, 1987)“Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said.”(Yule, 1996)“Pragmatics is a theory which seeks to characterize how speakers use the sentences of a language to effect successful communication.”(Kempson, 1975 ) When communication is mentioned, one important factor can not be ignored. That is distance. No two participants in any communication are identical, so differences between individuals exist in communications. These differences in communications can be regarded as distances between participants in pragmatics. Here, distance should be interpreted in a broad sense, which can be used to refer to physical distance, psychological distance, cognitive distance, social distance-any difference between a speaker (or writer) and a listener (or reader). In the following paragraphs, these distances will be discussed respectively. ......