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锂电池发展简史


□ 黄彦瑜

  摘 要 由于具有很高的能量密度,锂金属在1958年被引入电池领域,1970年进入锂一次电池的商业研发阶段。自1990年以来,随着正极材料、负极材料与电解质的革新,可充放二次锂电池不断发展并实现商品化。如今锂电池技术仍在继续发展并将进一步改善人类生活。文章对40多年来锂电池技术发展历程进行了简单的回顾。
  关键词锂电池,嵌入化合物,综述,技术史
  
  Brief history of the lithium battery
  
  HUANG Yan-Yu
  (Center for Social Studies of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871,China)
  Abstract Lithium was introduced into the battery field in the 1950s due to its very high energy density. The first lithium batteries were developed in the 1970s, then rechargeable metal lithium batteries, Li-ion batteries, and polymer lithium batteries were successively developed. Since 1990 the latter two types have been commercialized successfully based on the invention of new cathode, anode and electrolyte materials. Lithium battery technologies are still being developed and will continue to improve the quality of our lives. This paper gives a brief introduction to the history of lithium batteries over the last 40 years.
  Keywords lithium battery, intercalation compound, review, history of science
  
  锂电池(Lithium Battery, 简写成LB)分为锂一次电池(又称锂原电池, Primary LB)与锂二次电池(又称锂可充电电池, Rechargeable LB)。锂原电池通常以金属锂或者锂合金为负极,用MnO2,SOCl2,(CF)n等材料为正极。锂二次电池研发分为金属锂二次电池、锂离子电池与锂聚合物电池三个阶段。 ......
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