The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty
The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are ofgreat significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickeningand awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate ofHeaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhoupropagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandateof Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhouidea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. Theintermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained theoverall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".The Evolution of the Testamentary System from the Qin and Han to the Tang and Song Dynasties
In ancient China, there was a process of development by which dying injunctio......