At the Shanghai Cooperation Or-ganization (SCO) summit in2006, it was determined thatfrom August 9 to 17, 2007, thesix member nations, China, Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbeki-stan, would carry out a joint anti-terrorismexercise. Operations would be conducted inChelyabinsk, the Ural Mountains region ofRussia, and in Urumqi, the capital of north-western China's Xinjiang Uygur Autono-mous Region.
Dubbed "Peace Mission 2007," this wasthe largest such multinational joint anti-terrorism exercise in history. About 6,500military personnel and 80 aircraft were in-volved.
The purpose of the drill was multi-fold:To demonstrate the determination of SCOmembers to tackle new challenges andthreats in the region; to maintain regionalsecurity and stability; to promote joint de-velopment and prosperity; to showcase theresolution and tactical capabilities in com-bating terrorism, separatism and extremism;to exhibit to the world a new level of securi-ty cooperation among the SCO member na-tions; and to display SCO's important rolesin maintaining regional peace and stabilityin Eurasian regions and the world.
The SCO, formally founded in June2001, is a permanent intergovernmentalinternational organization conceived inShanghai in 1996 by the then five memberstates, including the People's Republic ofChina, the Russian Federation, the Repub-lic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic,and the Republic of Tajikistan. The memberroster now includes six, with the joining ofthe Republic of Uzbekistan. The prototypepremise was the Shanghai Five mechanism.The SCO has developed into a regional or-ganization today spanning Eurasia, withfour observer nations: India, Pakistan, Iran,and Mongolia.