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苏格拉底的“三重过滤”法则


□ 李 珏

  荀子曰:“流言止于智者。”古希腊的哲学家和教育学家苏格拉底也有办法让流言蜚语止于他。其实做智者十分简单:利用苏格拉底的“三重过滤”法则,仔细过滤听来的传言,将虚假、恶意又对自己毫无帮助的部分滤掉即可。

  In ancient Greece, Socrates was reputed2) to hold knowledge in high esteem3).

  One day an acquaintance4) met the great philosopher and said, "Do you know what I just heard about your friend?"

  "Hold on a minute," Socrates replied. "Before telling me anything, I'd like you to pass a little test. It's called the Triple Filter Test."

  "Triple filter?"

  "That's right," Socrates continued. "Before you talk to me about my friend, it might be a good idea to take a moment and filter what you're going to say. That's why I call it the triple filter test."

  "The first filter is TRUTH. Have you made absolutely sure that what you are about to tell me is true? "

  "No," the man said, "actually I just heard about it and ..."

  "All right," said Socrates. "So you don't really know if it's true or not. Now let's try the second filter, the filter of GOODNESS. Is what you are about to tell me about my friend something good?"

  "No, on the contrary ..."

  "So," Socrates continued, "you want to tell me something bad about him, but you're not certain it's true. You may still pass the test though, because there's one filter left: the filter of USEFULNESS. Is what you want to tell me about my friend going to be useful to me?"

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