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简论20世纪公德探讨中的几个误区


□ 丁为祥

  摘 要:20世纪的公德探讨开始于梁启超,他是在中西横向比较的背景下形成对道德的二重分划,又以公德之“公”与“新”作为道德发展的方向。本来,道德既无所谓公私也无所谓新旧,但由于梁启超的划分带有明显的价值评价意味,所以衍生了此后“古今”、“公私”长期对立的格局,并且也衍生了“文革”与“文化热”中的极左思潮。新世纪以来,随着经济的腾飞与社会的发展,人们又将对私德的讨伐和基督之爱的仰慕作为公德建设的动力,其实这都是在“公私”、“新旧”对立的基础上继续走入误区的表现。实际上,真正的公德必须以私德为精神基础,而以公民社会性地位的自觉及其权利与义务的对等为实现条件。

  关键词:公德;私德;精神基础;道德

  中图号:B259.1

  文献标识码:A

  文章编号:9499(2007)02-091-07

  On Some Misconceptions in the Discussion of the Social Morality in 20th Century

  DING Wei-xiang

  (Department of Philosophy,Shaanxi Nomal University,Xi’an 710062,China)

  Abstract:The first discussion of the social morality in 20th century was made by Liang Qichao,who formed the dichotomy of morality by the horizontal comparison between Chinese and Western morality and took “public” and “modern” of social morality as the development direction of morality.Originally,morality can not be said to be public or private,new or old,but,because Liang’s dichotomy had an obvious assessment flavour of values,a situation was formed afterwards that “ancient and modern”,“public and private” had long been antagonistic to each other,and also the extreme leftist ideological trend was derived in the “Cultural Revolution” and “the cultural Fever”.

  Since the new century,with the rapid development of economy and society,a punitive expedition against “private” morality and the admiration of Christ Love have been considered as the motive force of the construction of social morality,which,actually,manifests that the further misconceptions have been formed on the basis of the opposition of “public” to “private” and of “modern” to “ancient”.In fact,the true social morality necessarily takes “private” morality as its spiritual foundation,and take the citizens’ consciousness of their social status and the equality of their rights and duties as the conditions for its realization.

  Key Words:social morality;private morality;spiritual foundation;moral

  随着中国经济的起飞与社会的发展,公德问题越来越受到人们的关注;而公德对于社会发展之重要以及国人公德意识之薄弱,似乎也已经成为思想界的一致看法了。

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