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再谈科技英语论文写作中的定义与叙述


□ 江华圣

  摘要:本文针对科技英语论文的特点,论述了科技英语论文主体中常用的定义与叙述写作方法,分析其常用句型的结构、特点并给出多种不同形式的应用实例。

  关键词:科技英语论文写作;定义;叙述

  中图分类号:H315 文献标识码:A

  文章的主体是科技论文的核心部分,是主题思想的展开和论述。作者可根据需要在文章中加小标题,将主体内容分为几个部分进行论述。科技论文的英文写作通常把每段的主体句(Topic Sentence)放在段落的第一句,全段围绕主体句论述,定义与叙述是科技论文写作中又一种常用的写作方法。

  一、定义(Definition)

  (一)Introduction

  When making a hypothesis(假说)or other statement, scientists must make sure that they will beunderstood by other researchers. Misunderstandings occur when there are different concepts of what is being discussed.

  A definition answers the question, “What is it?” Sometimes a definition is necessary because a word or concept has more than one meaning. For example, whether carbon is a metal or nonmetal depends on how you define carbon. At other times, a definition is required because a term is being used in a special way. For example, physicists use the terms work and energy in ways that are more specific than their common meanings. A definition should be complete enough to include all the items in the category yet narrow enough to eliminate items that do not belong. The Greek philosopher Plato once defined man as a two-legged creature that has no feathers. The problem with Plato's definition was that it did not distinguish a man from other two-legged creatures without feathers. Communication between researchers is dependent on precise definitions of substances, concepts, processes, and ideas.

  Greek philosopher Plato 希腊哲学家帕拉图

  (二)Sentence patterns

  Sentence pattern 1:

  An astronomer is a scientist whostudies the universe.

  A barometeris an instrumentthat measures air pressure.

  Conductionis a process by which heat is transferred.

  A laboratoryis a place whereexperiments are performed.

  Physicsis the study ofmatter and energy.

  A volt is a unitfor measuring electrical pressure.

   Sentence pattern 2:

  Mercuryisa liquidmetal.

  Asbestosis a fire-resistantmineral.

  A dinosaurisa prehistoric reptile.

  A monkeyis a small, long -tailedprimate.

  (三)Application Examples

  be 是

  mean 意思是,意味着,意指

  denote 表示,指

  imply 意思是,意味着

  be named 命名为,被称为

  Examples:

  1. Printers are output devices.

  打印机是输出设备。

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