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曹禺《原野》的原型分析及文化意蕴



  Champaign,one of the masterpieces of Cao Yu,has been reevaluated from every aspect in recent years.The present thesis is devoted to discuss the play from the aspect of Prototype Criticism theory.
  Northrop Frye,a Canadian scholar,is the first person who applies the prototype theory to literary study.In his masterpiece The Anatomy of Criticism (1957),he points out that “an archetype is a recurring image in literature”.Later he says with more precise:“I take archetype as any unit of literary meaning,it can be a character,a narrative formula,an image,or a kind of idea drawn from a larger extent of similar descriptions.” Prototype Criticism employs the research findings in anthropology,culturology and psychology and requires that all the literary factors,such as genre,subject,theme and structure should be examined within the cultural integrity.It puts special emphasis on the relationship between literary creation and literary tradition to dig out and interpret the deep implication behind the text.In Cao Yu’s Champaign,the revenge of Qiu Hu,the runaway of Qiu Hu and Hua Jinzi and the relationship between Hua Jinzi and her mother-in-law Mother Jiao have plenty of archetypes in traditional Chinese literature and even in foreign literature.
  
  1.Revenge Prototype
  Revenge is the embodiment of natural human law characterized by hypernormal and extremity.It is a special historical and cultural phenomenon existing all over the world and has eternal manifestation in both domestic and foreign plays such as A Chinese Orphan,revolt of the fishing folks and Medea and Hamlet,etc.
  Champaign is a tragedy of peasant Qiu Hu revenging the local tyrant Hades Jiao.Hades Jiao contrives to kill Qiu’s father,seizure their property,sell Qiu’s 15-year-old younger sister to brothel,break Qiu’s leg and put him into prison by false charging him as a brigand.After suffering the wrong for eight years,Qiu escapes from the prison only to find that his enemy has died.Therefore,Qiu kills Jiao Daxing,son of his enemy,and kills Jiao Daxing’s son Xiao Heizi by using Mother Jiao.The archetype behind the protean stories is the typical blood feud revenge mode of “revenge for one’s father” and “pay the father’s debt”.It says in Book of Rites that the animosity of one’s father is absolutely irreconcilable.In the era when Confucianism is prevailing,this conception has deeply rooted in people’s mind and the blood feud revenge has become a representation of filial piety.It is the same with the western literature.For example,Hamlet contains a triplex layer of blood feud revenge:Hamlet’s revenge to his uncle Claudius who kills his father and marries his mother;revenge of Laertes,Polonaise's son,to Hamlet on killing his father accidentally and Norwegian prince Portinbras’ revenge on his father’s death.Bearing in mind the revenge mission endowed by tradition culture,Qiu kills the kind and timid son of his enemy when he could not find someone to revenge and is tortured psychologically.Finally he goes crazy in the woods.While digging deeply in the traditional cultural and psychological accumulation of kindred conscious,Cao puts more emphasis,by using the western classical revenge tragedies for reference,on the analysis and portrait of the characters’ psychology before and after the revenge and reveals revenge as his so-called “cruel and natural law”.
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